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Question #1: In the 1920s, this ergonomic pistol turned out to be a nightmare for operators when they tried to reassemble it after cleaning:

1. A. Remington Model 51. Although designed by genius John Pedersen, the Model 51 was overly complex and potentially dangerous. A recent improved version—the R51— also failed after a brief introduction in 2014. The other three pistols were all highly successful.

Question #2: This Kalashnikov variant included features from other military designs, but never lived up to expectations:

C. India’s INSAS. Designed and built by veteran manufacturer Ishapore Arsenal, the INSAS should have been a runaway success. Some reviews suggest that poor quality control was the problem. The other three rifles have been very successful.

Question #3: Produced from 1884 until 1904, this carbine was plagued by reliability problems and never sold well, either to law enforcement or the public at large:

3. C. Colt Lightning. From first to last, the Lightning proved troublesome. Although built for 20 years, it developed and sustained a bad reputation for disfunction. Exact replicas and “improved” versions can’t seem to shake the cloud the Lightning has lived under.

Question #4: This handsome rifle was built for export to nations with soldiers of smaller stature but only landed one government contract:

D. Madsen M47. An excellent design and well made, the bolt-action M47 was introduced into a world awash in post-war bolt-actions. Plus, its .30-’06 cartridge beat up the smaller soldiers it was designed for. Only Columbia bought some—and quickly sold them to the American sporting market. The other rifles listed were all fantastic successes.

Question #5: A surprising entry into the sporting marketplace, this rifle was plagued by an unappealing appearance and was then doomed because of safety issues

A. Smith & Wesson i-Bolt. When introduced just over a decade ago, the homely i-Bolt was an immediate disappointment. Then, an urgent safety recall offered the venerable manufacturer an escape route. The other modern firearms listed are all highly successful.

Question #6: Shortly after France’s army adopted the 8mm Lebel rifle, its navy adopted this lighter weapon:

B. 6.5mm Deaudateau. This short-lived rifle was a product of inter-service rivalry. The same issue created the U.S. Navy’s failed 6mm. The Japanese Arisaka was used as a substitute standard by the Royal Navy, and the 6.5 Mauser was a Swedish cavalry carbine.

Question #7: This robust repeating rifle was sold to diverse nations and smaller state military units but never got the approval of major armies. When offered commercially, it failed to generate much interest:

Question #8: Based on a highly successful target rifle, the failure of this rifle in the trenches of World War I was a political disaster:

C. 1910 Ross Mk III. Based on the straight-pull 1905 Ross, failure of its bolt lugs led to a failure of confidence in the mud of Flanders. The other two straight-pull rifles listed had long, successful lives.

Question #9: This select-fire Soviet automatic rifle was withdrawn from service almost immediately after its combat debut:

A. Simonov AVS-36. Unlike most Soviet rifles, the AVS-36 was beautifully finished. However, after just three months of service against the Finns, they were withdrawn. The Finns discarded captured rifles as well. The other rifles and the DP LMG listed were excellent combat weapons.

Question #10: The first of a new generation of military firearms and built with aviation industry technology, this rifle was adopted by several small nations but languished due to lackluster performance:

B. Armalite AR-10. Built of aluminum and plastic, the AR-10 yielded mediocre service in several African brushfire wars. It’s distinctive “waffle-patterned” magazine stands out in photos of the era. The other rifles listed were all successful and were manufactured with conventional steel and wood construction.